Figure 2. elastic and visco-elastic properties, friction and creep behaviour). below it [1]. The length-wise extensibility and recovery of cross miss structure are relatively lower than single pique and single jersey. In this regard, some of the characteristics of yarns and fabrics, knitted from the mentioned yarns, were measured and analysed. Researchers are trying to understand the math behind how stitches alter the elasticity, mechanical strength and 3-D structure of knitted fabrics. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. In the test method, a washing machine to wet out (swell) the fiber/fabric under tensionless conditions was used. Therefore, it would appear that all three fabrics were susceptible to length shrinkage. Float stitch also gives high bending rigidity, bulkiness and smoother fabric surface. Snag Testing If however, the two zones of interlacement around the base are done away with, then a new structural element, namely the tuck is formed. However, width-wise shrinkage of all structures is within the acceptable limit. Also knit dyed fabrics were compared with woven fabrics in terms of color exhaustion. It is observed that the stitch length or loop length has the most significant effect on Spirality and GSM of cotton single jersey fabric. Knit fabric can more easily deform or stretch by compressing or elongating the individual stitches that form the fabric. Wicking fabrics can also wick away your body heat when temperatures rise. Since the construction of knitted fabrics makes them able to be used in smaller... 3. The results show that single jersey structure has higher extensibility and recovery value as compared to single pique and cross miss structures. Wale-wise and course-wise increment of tuck loop reduces bursting strength gradually.10 The type of knit structure has an effect on extensibility and strength of knitted fabrics.11. The way in which a fabric drapes or hangs depends largely on its stiffness, that is, its resistance to bending and its own weight. Single pique has a higher areal density than cross miss and single jersey structures. It is observed over a decade that consumers prefer to wear lightweight fabrics. As a consequence, single-knit fabrics may have permanent deformation. Physical properties of ring, compact, and air vortex yarns made of PTT/wool/modal and wearing comfort of their knitted fabrics … Discover a curated selection of men’s clothing, footwear and lifestyle items. In this research work, in the light of previous existing information about compact spinning was carried out to investigate the Physical and comfort characteristics of cotton knitted fabrics such as Bursting, Pilling, Abrasion resistance, Seam stretchability of knitted garments, color fastness to wash and rubbing, whiteness and Color efficiency (K/S value), thermal conductivity, air permeability, wicking and water … Therefore, single pique has a higher areal density than cross miss and single jersey structures. In general, after washing the length of knitted loops become smaller or larger and the fabric will shrink positively or negatively in the width and length direction. Fort Worth, TX 76185. The fabric drape ability and fabric weight values are shown in Table 4. But, all knitted fabrics may not have these properties equally. An experiment to determine the air permeability is very important as it defines the properties of keeping warm, protection against the wind, breathability and so on of knitted fabrics used as clothing.14,15, Table 4 shows that all the three structures have different air permeability value even though some knitting parameters, such as yarn count, loop length, machine gauge, and so on remain the same. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Extensibility was measured according to ASTMD2594 using Extensometer. A Digital thickness gauge (MESDAN, model: D-2000) was used to measure the thickness of the fabric samples in accordance to ASTM D1777-96. A high level of elasticity and recovery is being possessed by knitted fabric for unique properties. This is because of the presence of float yarn, which is not knitted, but rather floats on the back of held loop and provides additional thickness. Air permeability is often used in evaluating and comparing the “breathability” of various fabrics for end-uses, such as T-shirts, jackets, underwear and some outerwear garments, raincoats, tents and uniform shirtings. Good properties of triboelectric yarns render which can be facilely woven or knitted into triboelectric fabrics/textiles with wider applications. weft knitted fabrics made from . The stiffer a fabric is, the larger is the area of its shadow compared with the unsupported area of the fabric. A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop, one or more tuck loops, and knitted loops. knitted or woven) and structure (e.g. Fabrics used for this study were selected based on common commercial use in the textile industry, and they are common in clothing fabrics and are commercially available. Few researchers have also done work on the effect of knitting parameters mainly machine gauge, stitch density feeding and takedown tension on fabric dimensional and comfort properties, such as shrinkage, Spirality, bursting, pilling and air permeability.14,15 The present work is focused on the combined effect of three different types of stitches (knit stitch, tuck with knit stitch and knit with miss stitch in equal proportion) on some of the physical properties of single jersey knitted fabrics such as areal density, fabric thickness, air permeability, drape ability, stretch and recovery, and shrinkage. ASTM D42261 1.5 lbs. After washing (wet relaxed state) loops become wider and shorter. The float used to connect the adjacent wales and make the fabric narrower. Using a Metler make digital measuring balance, it was measured by using a cutting device (round, area 100 cm2). Mikučionienė, D, Ciukas, R, Mickevičienė, A. Shivaraj, RK, Ramesh, SN, Shaheeda Banu, S. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Certain brands of thermal underwear come in a wide variety of patterns and colors. From the results shown in Table 4, cross miss structure is thicker than single jersey and single pique fabrics. The most important use of wool is for apparel coats, jackets, suits, dresses, skirts, slacks made from woven fabrics of varying weights and knitted fabrics’. In that case, analysis of fabric properties at grey stage can help us to take various control & corrective actions when necessary. The length of knitted loops becomes smaller or larger and the fabric shrinks positively or negatively in the width and length direction. It provides clothing comfort to the wearer. Due to the structural difference, knitted fabrics are used in different applications.1 Different stitches and stitch combinations affect the properties of knitted fabric. In single jersey, there is an extra yarn that neither floats nor tucked on to the knitted loops. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties and influenced by the low-stress mechanical properties, such as bending rigidity, formability, tensile and shear properties, and compressibility of the fabric. minimum in both directions Once a knitted structure has been stretched in use, a fabric should contract or recover to its original dimension. The physical properties of the dyed knitted fabrics , before and after the treatment of fluorescent dyes were determined and evaluated . This research work does not focus on comparative analysis of spun silk and cotton knitted fabric. In the same manner, cross miss structures are highly permeable than single jersey fabrics, and this is due to the presence of held loop, which makes the fabric open than normal knitted loop structures. Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. The labor dependent nature of cutting and sewing tasks make them expensive. For the three structures, seven samples each were prepared with a dimension of 65 mm × 65 mm and was washed for one hour at 60º C using standard detergent (soap 5 g/l). It is the length of yarn in millimeter (mm) for one loop. March 2019 . Similarly, on a single pique structure, there is a held loop that has the same effect on air permeability even though there are different stitch arrangements. Utility characteristics are changes in the fit, comfort, and wearing functions of … The effect of knit structure on areal density, fabric thickness, air permeability, drape ability, stretch and recovery, shrinkage, and low-stress mechanical properties are investigated, and it was found that these properties are significantly affected by loop shape or knit structure, even though other knitting parameters remained the same. For cross miss, the structure was produced by the following cam and needle arrangement as shown in Figure 3. Test Method Descriptions for Knit Fabrics. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. The cotton yarn made out fibers that had Fiber bundle tenacity of 28.78 cN/tex, upper half mean length of 2.69 cm, uniformity index of 81.5, micronaire of 4.09 and short fiber content (%) by weight of 11.69 was used in the study. The plain single-jersey fabric appeared to spiral significantly after washing. It was also found that the presence of tuck and float stitches for a given structure have a significant effect on fabric drape ability, width-wise extensibility, length-wise shrinkage, thickness, areal density and low-stress mechanical properties. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Textile Research Journal, 81(2), 156-172. 1. Connect with brands in a content-rich shopping environment. The air permeability values obtained from single pique knit fabric is significantly higher than single jersey structures. This site uses cookies. Cam and needle arrangement of single pique structure: (a) design repeat, (b) feeders, (c) cam order (two truck level) and (d) needle arrangement. The loop value was measured by taking 70 wales. Moreover, there was a considerable amount of change within the structure. ASTM D2261, 6.0 lbs. (2017). The higher the drape coefficient is, the stiffer is the fabric. In general, the knitted fabrics have more stretchable property compared to the woven fabrics [2,3]. In the same manner on cross miss structures, as mentioned above, there is a floated yarn on the reverse side of the stitch. Drying shrinkage is defined as a dimensional change in a fabric when “de-swelling” of fiber, yarn and construction occurs in the drying step. The most widely accepted method of drape test, according to ISO 9073- 9 uses is the drape meter. The properties of cotton-Tencel and cotton-Promodal blended yarns spun in different spinning systems. It is known that the fabric thickness has an indirect correlation with air permeability, that is, when fabric thickness increases, air permeability decreases, and the reverse is true. tightness, yarn cross-over point density, yarn unit segment and float length), yarn structure (e.g. From Table 4, it can be observed that the thickness of cross miss fabric is higher than single pique and single jersey fabric structures. Stretch and Set Properties of Knitted Fabrics - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. When yarn count increases Spirality increases and vice versa.9 In addition to other knitting and yarn parameters, the effect of stitch type has an influence on the bursting strength of knitted fabrics. Pre-conditioning of all fabrics was carried out in a conditioning chamber at 65% relative humidity and 20°C for 24 h before each testing. Fabric characteristics are usually dictated by a specified end-use. With the right workwear from MASCOT, you can feel comfortable in your job. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. However cross miss structures are highly permeable than single jersey due to the presence of the held loop, which makes the fabric open and porous than the normal knitted loop. A large number of factors are responsible for causing these undesirable effects in knitted structures; these are all associated with the yarn, finishing and making-up of the fabrics, but for this work, only knit structure was investigated. FundingThe author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. However, consumers sometimes expect performance characteristics beyond those for which rayon fibers were designed. Knitting machines form loops of yarn with many pointed needles or shafts. Sometimes yarn overlapping caused release in course-wise and shrinkage in wale-wise. Since the edges of a piece of fabric are free for movement, they are more likely to curl. But despite generations of practical and experiential knowledge, the physical and mathematical properties of knitted fabric rarely are studied in a … Rib is a more costly and heavier structured fabric to produce than plain fabric. Test results have shown that knitted structures have a crucial influence on fabric areal density even if the processing parameters remain the same. This is due to the geometry or shape of the knitted loop and its arrangement, which makes the fabric highly extensible and recoverable, than other loop structures (tuck and float stitch). End use performance characterization of unconventional knitted fabrics, Effect of knitted structure on the properties of knitted fabric, Effect of wale wise increasing of tuck and miss loops on bursting strength of single jersey fabric at grey and finish state, The effect of knit structures with tuck stitches on fabric properties and pilling resistance, Effect of stitch length and fabric constructions on dimensional and mechanical properties of knitted fabrics, Investigation into the curling intensity of polyester/cotton single jersey weft knitted fabric using finite element method, The influences of loop length and raw material on bursting strength air permeability characteristics of single jersey knitted fabrics, Effect of yarn count & stitch length on shrinkage, GSM and spirality of single jersey cotton knit fabric, Effect of tuck loop in bursting strength of single jersey knitted fabrics, The influence of knitting structure on mechanical properties of weft knitted fabrics, Influence of knitting parameters on the mechanical properties of plain jersey weft knitted fabrics, Effect of TM and loop length on drape coefficient of single jersey knitted fabrics, Investigation of porosity and air permeability values of plain knitted fabrics, Effect of stitch type on air permeability of summer outerwear knitted fabrics, Physical properties of single jersey derivative knitted cotton fabric with tuck and miss stitches, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, https://www.scitechnol.com/peer-review/modelling-of-porosity-in-knitted-fabrics-2ucv.php?article_id=6222. Smart fabrics can sense different environmental conditions and intelligent textiles or e-textiles can not only sense environmental changes, but can automatically respond to their surroundings or stimuli, such as thermal, chemical, or mechanical changes, as well.. A tuck stitch contains a held loop, more tuck loops and knitted loops. Furthermore, if all the four binding zones are removed then evidently a straight segment of yarn, namely the float would materialize. At the same time, fabric comfort has gained priority over fabric durability. Tear Strength Single pique is also thicker than single jersey due to tucked yarn over the held loop, which increases fabric thickness than a normal knitted loop. The paper is assumed to have a constant mass per unit area so that the measured mass is proportional to the area (Figure 5). Utility Characteristics. The tuck and miss loops have a significant effect on the bursting strength of weft- knitted fabric. 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