December 23, Dennis Muilenburg resigned, to be replaced by board chairman. September 30, a Boeing 737 MAX test aircraft was flown by FAA administrator. Other major regulators worldwide are gradually following suit: Transport Canada and EASA both cleared the MAX in late January 2021, subject to additional requirements.[44][46]. This page was last edited on 3 February 2021, at 20:20. Boeing 737 Max: When will the doomed jet fly again? A 737 Max near Boeing’s factory in Renton, Wash. Ryanair passengers travelling on Boeing 737 Max can get ‘full refund’, Debris found in new Boeing 737 Max fuel tanks, Norwegian Air blames £134m loss on Boeing 737 Max grounding, Ryanair pushes Boeing 737 Max delivery date back to autumn, Passengers should trust 737 Max if ‘best pilots in the world’ fly them, World’s largest twin-engine plane completes maiden flight, Grounded 737 Max will miss summer peak, Boeing admits, Ryanair could start flying Boeing 737 Max this summer, Boeing orders slump to lowest level in over a decade amid Max crisis, Boeing emails reveal cover-ups in 737 Max development, Air safety in 2010s better than ever despite Boeing 737 Max tragedies. [2] The FAA revoked Boeing's authority to issue airworthiness certificates for individual MAX airplanes and imposed a fine on Boeing for exerting "undue pressure" on its designated aircraft inspectors. The grounding subsequently became the longest ever of a U.S. Ryanair rejects 737 safety claims as ‘rubbish’, Boeing faces accusations over 787 oxygen system dangers, Ryanair says its Boeing 737 Max jets will not fly before summer 2020, Boeing boss faces second day of grilling over 737 Max crashes, Boeing boss testifies at Senate Commerce Committee, Boeing condemned in Lion Air 737 Max accident report, Boeing predicts 737 Max will fly again by the end of 2019, Boeing replaces senior executive in charge of 737 Max, Captain Sully outraged at fatal 737 MAX crashes being blamed on pilots, Boeing pilots feared for 737 Max safety three years ago. There have been several cancellations over the last year. Unlike NTSB reports that identify the primary cause of accidents and then list contributing issues determined to be less significant, Indonesia is following a convention used by many foreign regulators of listing causal factors without ranking them". For the two MAX accidents these are:[91]. The FAA resisted grounding the aircraft until March 13, when it received evidence of accident similarities. Engineering reviews uncovered other design problems, unrelated to MCAS, in the flight computers and cockpit displays. [75][76] Due to this finding, some experts in Indonesia suggested that the NTSC should cooperate with Flight 302's investigation team. Boeing's 737 Max plane is safe to return to service in the UK and the European Union, regulators have said. [74], On March 17, 2019, Dagmawit Moges, Ethiopia's transport minister, announced that the black box had been found and downloaded, and that the preliminary data retrieved from the flight data recorder show a "clear similarity" with those of Lion Air Flight 610 which crashed off Indonesia. [58][59], The final report has been shared with families of Lion Air Flight 610, then published on October 25, 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic changed that in … AD The MAX was exempted from certain newer safety requirements, saving Boeing billions of dollars in development costs.[93]. [107] The FAA began requiring all MAX pilots to undergo MCAS-related training in flight simulators. "All the pilots flying the MAX received the training after the Indonesia crash," he said. Boeing slowed MAX production to 42 aircraft per month until in January 2020, when they halted until the airplane is reapproved by regulators. Boeing agrees to pay $2.5 billion to resolve federal criminal charge over 737 Max conspiracy A Boeing 737 Max jet prepares to land at Boeing Field following a … The first authority to ground the MAX, Civil Aviation Administration of China said the accidents "had certain similarities" because both aircraft were newly delivered and crashed shortly after takeoff.[108]. Both crashes were linked to the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), a new flight control law. Opinion polls suggested most passengers are reluctant to fly again aboard the 737 MAX when it will be reintroduced, while most should be comfortable boarding it again after some time passes to prove its safe operations. Mica Endsley of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society testified that "The cues received by the pilots [...] were significantly different than the cues received with a runaway stabilizer trim". News & Advice When will Italy return to the quarantine-free list? The participating state or national transportation safety bureaus are the NTSB for the US and the NTSC for Indonesia. After two fatal crashes of the Boeing 737 MAX narrow-body passenger airplanes in 2018 and 2019, aviation regulators and airlines around the world grounded all 737 MAX airliners. Entering 2020, Southwest Airlines was desperate to get the Boeing 737 MAX back in its fleet as soon as possible. [82] The FAA issued an emergency airworthiness directive, 2018-23-51, on November 7, 2018 requiring the bulletin's inclusion in the flight manuals, and that pilots immediately review the new information provided. Boeing 737 Max to make its first US flight for almost two years. FAA certification of the MAX was subsequently investigated by the U.S. Congress and multiple U.S. government agencies, including the Transportation Department, FBI, NTSB, Inspector General and special panels. [78], The Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority published an interim report on March 9, 2020, one day before the March 10 anniversary of the crash. [70], The Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority (ECAA) is leading investigations for Flight 302. [95] The FAA found several defects that Boeing deferred to fix, in violation of regulations. [50] ", "Boeing 737 Max: Brazilian airline resumes passenger flights", "Boeing Max Returns to US Skies With First Passenger Flight", "Boeing Charged with 737 Max Fraud Conspiracy and Agrees to Pay over $2.5 Billion", "Boeing to pay $2.5bn over 737 Max conspiracy", "Transport Canada introduces additional requirements to allow for the return to service of the Boeing 737 MAX", "Transport Canada Validates 737 MAX Design Changes, Expects Return to Service in January", "Boeing 737 Max cleared to fly in Europe after crashes", "EASA yet to approve 737 Max for certain precision approaches", "The US is increasingly alone in not grounding the Boeing 737 Max", "U.S. Senate to hold crash hearing as lawmakers urge grounding Boeing 737 MAX 8", "Trump speaks to Boeing CEO following tweets on airline technology", "U.S. A recent congressional report faulted both … [96] In September 2020, the House of Representatives concluded its investigation and cited numerous instances where Boeing dismissed employee concerns with MCAS, prioritized deadline and budget constraints over safety, and where it lacked transparency in disclosing essential information to the FAA. In 2020, an FAA Airworthiness Directive[106] approved design changes for each MAX aircraft, requiring input from two AoA sensors for MCAS activation, elimination of the system's ability to repeatedly activate, and allowing pilots to override the system if necessary. Just hours after the approval for MCAS’s redesign was granted, Boeing sought, and the FAA approved, the removal of references to MCAS from Boeing’s, January 10, The Operational Evaluation Report of the, November 10, Boeing referred publicly for the first time to the, December 3, the FAA Seattle Certification Office reviewed an unpublished quantitative risk assessment. Australia and Singapore also offered technical assistance, shortly after the Lion Air accident, regarding data recovery from the new generation flight recorders (FDR). The Indonesian NTSC and the Ethiopian ECAA both attributed the crashes to faulty aircraft design and other factors, including maintenance and flight crew actions. [111] Its extensive supply chain providing aircraft components and flight simulators suffered similar losses, as did the aircraft services industry, including crew training, the aftermarket and the aviation insurance industry. Both avoided mentioning the new Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), which was responsible for the nosedives but had been omitted by Boeing from crew manuals and training. The 8200? January 18, Transport Canada authorized the MAX to resume flights in Canadian airspace. Boeing expressed its sympathy to the relatives of the Lion Air Flight 610 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 crash victims, while simultaneously defending the aircraft against any faults until rebutted by evidence. [94] In January 2021, Boeing settled to pay over $2.5 billion after being charged with fraud. Boeing has admitted knowing about problems with the 737 Max before deadly crashes brought the aircraft's safety issues to light. Grounds Boeing Planes, After Days of Pressure", "Boeing 737 Max 8 planes grounded after Ethiopian crash", "From 8,600 Flights to Zero: Grounding the Boeing 737 Max 8", "The 737 built Southwest, and the 737 Max could be its undoing", "What Really Brought Down the Boeing 737 Max? In both crashes, MCAS was activated by an erroneous indication from an AoA sensor on the exterior of the airplane. January 21, Boeing estimated the ungrounding could begin in mid-2020. The NTSC final report, published on October 23, 2019 was prepared with assistance from the U.S. NTSB. In June 2020, the U.S. The Boeing 737 MAX was certified in March 2017 by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Ethiopia, for Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, as state of registration, state of occurrence and state of operator. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "The decision by both the FAA and Boeing to omit information about MCAS from communications with the public, 737 MAX customers, and MAX pilots did not last long. By then, most other regulators had already grounded the aircraft. The FAA enforced the bulletin with an Emergency Airworthiness Directive. Why did the Bek Air plane crash and how safe are Kazakh airlines? It still proved popular from the beginning, with over 5,200 gross orders since its launch. Most airlines seek compensation from Boeing to cover costs of the disruption, while the 737 MAX received some support when International Airlines Group (IAG) announced at the June 2019 Paris Air Show it could order 200 jets. "[86][88], The NTSB questioned the long-held industry and FAA practice of assuming the nearly instantaneous responses of highly trained test pilots as opposed to pilots of all levels of experience to verify human factors in aircraft safety. Both crashed jets were Boeing 737 Max 8s, a variant of the best-selling aircraft in history. Can I get my money back if I refuse to fly on a 737 Max? The United States Federal Aviation Administration will also assist in the investigation. It further found that the assumption that simulator training would not be necessary had "diminished safety, minimized the value of pilot training, and inhibited technical design improvements". In December 2018, the FAA privately predicted that MCAS could cause 15 crashes over 30 years, but expected Boeing to fix MCAS by April 2019. [53] Several ferry flights were operated with flaps extended to circumvent MCAS activation. Lawmakers investigated Boeing's incentives to minimize training for the new aircraft. NTSC's investigator Nurcahyo Utomo identified nine factors to the accident, saying: "The nine factors are the root problem; they cannot be separated. Says", "Safety Recommendation Report: Assumptions Used in the Safety Assessment Process and the Effects of Multiple Alerts and Indications on Pilot Performance", "NTSB Issues 7 Safety Recommendations to FAA related to Ongoing Lion Air, Ethiopian Airlines Crash Investigations", "Boeing report highlights human factors no company should ignore", "Plane Tests Must Use Average Pilots, NTSB Says After 737 MAX Crashes", "Boeing Failed to Predict That Slew of 737 Max Warning Alarms Would Confuse Pilots, Investigators Say", "Boeing's 737 MAX Crisis: Coverage by The Seattle Times", "Boeing pushed FAA to relax 737 MAX certification requirements for crew alerts", "The DOJ is reportedly probing whether Boeing's chief pilot misled regulators over the 737 Max", "Inspector General report details how Boeing played down MCAS in original 737 MAX certification – and FAA missed it", "FAA Probing Boeing's Alleged Pressure on Designated Inspectors", "Changes to flawed Boeing 737 Max were kept from pilots, DeFazio says", "Exclusive: Boeing kept FAA in the dark on key 737 MAX design changes - U.S. IG report", "Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes", "China is the first country to ground the Boeing 737 Max after its two crashes", "How much was pilot error a factor in the Boeing 737 MAX crashes? Boeing's reputation, business, and financial rating has suffered after these groundings, questioning Boeing's strategy, governance, and focus on profits and cost efficiency. ", "This [the emergency the pilots faced] is not simple", "Boeing 737 Max: The Latest on the Deadly Crashes and the Fallout", "Six months on from the Boeing 737 Max grounding", "Boeing 737 MAX Flight Control System - Observations, Findings, and Recommendations", "Why restarting Max production is just the start of Boeing's delivery challenges", "How the 737 Max grounding changed commercial aerospace", "Tarnished Max brand presents major challenge for Boeing", "Boeing shunned automation for decades. Oversight in Lion Air Crash Report", "Investigators spread blame in Lion Air crash, but mostly fault Boeing and FAA", "Boeing, FAA and Lion Air Failures Laid Bare in 737 MAX Crash Report", "Boeing expects 737 Max to fly again by New Year", "Boeing fires commercial planes boss as 737 MAX crisis deepens: SKY", "U.S. ", "Boeing Statement on Lion Air Flight 610 Preliminary Report", "Ethiopian Airlines crash is the second disaster involving Boeing 737 MAX 8 in months", "Indonesia to Fault 737 MAX Design, U.S. UAE aviation agency clears Boeing 737 Max to fly again, First Boeing 737 Max flies in Europe after grounding order lifted, Ryanair planning for European expansion despite heavy losses, Boeing 737 Max given green light to fly in the EU, European aviation agency clears Boeing 737 Max to fly again, Former Boeing manager says 737 Max displays ‘electrical anomalies’, Boeing 737 Max to be cleared to fly in Europe next week, European aviation agency: 737 Max to be cleared next week, Boeing 737: History and safety record of the aeroplane, Dozens feared dead after Boeing 737 crashes in Indonesia, Boeing will pay $2.5bn to settle Max jet criminal conspiracy charge, Boeing 737 Max fears have not affected bookings – so far, Boeing 737 Max to make its first US flight for almost two years, Coronavirus has set aviation back to 1999, leading data analysts say, ‘This is not a Max’: the sales pitch to passengers from new airline, Senate investigators fault FAA over Boeing jet, safety, Summer holiday prices up 14% in 2021, says Tui, Boeing 737 Max flies passengers again – in Brazil, Boeing 737 Max back in air 2 years after grounded by crashes, Passenger group appeals decision to let Boeing 737 Max fly again, First Boeing 737 Max plane gets certificate saying it is safe to fly, Boeing 737 Max? The Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) is an automated flight control developed by Boeing which became notorious for its role in the two fatal accidents of the 737 MAX, killing 346 passengers and crew on board before the aircraft was grounded worldwide in 2019. The Air Canada service from … Preliminary investigations revealed serious flight control problems that traumatized passengers and crew on the aircraft's previous flight, as well as signs of angle-of-attack (AoA) sensor and other instrument failures on that and previous flights, tied to a design flaw involving the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) of the 737 MAX series. The Boeing 737 MAX passenger airliner was grounded worldwide between March 2019 and December 2020 - longer in many jurisdictions - after 346 people died in two crashes, Lion Air Flight 610 on October 29, 2018 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 on March 10, 2019. Inspector General's report revealed that MCAS problems dated several years before the accidents. [48][49] Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg called President Donald Trump on March 12 to assure him the airplane was safe. A Boeing 737-8 MAX was forced to make an unscheduled landing and have one engine shut down after it ran into issues. Indonesia, for Lion Air Flight 610 as state of registration, state of occurrence and state of operator. How can I make sure I avoid the Boeing 737 Max? [99][100] The Wall Street Journal reported that Boeing had failed to share information about that issue for "about a year" before the crash of Lion Air Flight 610. The Boeing 737 MAX was certified in March 2017 by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). After two fatal crashes, Lion Air Flight 610 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, global regulators grounded the MAX in March 2019. Boeing BA has been methodically addressing the problems stemming from the two crashes of the 737 MAX and the subsequent 20-month grounding of … Boeing said Wednesday that a Polish airline, Enter Air, had ordered a pair of its 737 Max jetliners, which have been grounded ever since they figured in two crashes. In August 2020, the FAA published requirements for fixing the aircraft and improving pilot training. On October 11, 2019, David L. Calhoun replaced Dennis Muilenburg as chairman of Boeing, then succeeded Muilenburg's role as chief executive officer in January 2020. [97], In November 2020, the FAA announced that it had cleared the aircraft type to return to service. The Boeing 737 MAX groundings have had a deep financial effect on the aviation industry and a significant effect on the national economy of the United States. News & Advice. Boeing convinced the FAA that MCAS could not fail hazardously or catastrophically, and that existing procedures were effective in dealing with malfunctions. Pilots and flight attendants opinions are mixed as some expressed confidence in the certification renewal, while others are disappointed as Boeing had hidden an important safety feature to their knowledge. A total of 387 aircraft were grounded. The 737 MAX, of course, has suffered from its grounding in 2019 following two crashes. December 17, Boeing confirmed the suspension of 737 MAX production from January 2020. By March 18, all 387 aircraft were banned from service. [51] About 30 MAX aircraft were flying in U.S. airspace at the time and were allowed to reach their destinations. airliner. On November 6, 2018, four days before it identified MCAS by name, Boeing published a supplementary service bulletin prompted by the first crash. January 27, EASA cleared the MAX to resume service in Europe, subject to additional restrictions similar to those mandated by Transport Canada. [73] BEA received the flight recorders on March 14, 2019. The Boeing 737 MAX groundings drew mixed reactions from multiple organizations. [71] Both flight recorders (voice and data) were recovered from the crash site on March 11, 2019. Following intense pressure from pilot unions and customers, Boeing finally revealed the name MCAS in a message to operators. • Boeing’s woes aren’t limited to the Max. The Boeing 737 MAX passenger airliner was grounded worldwide between March 2019 and December 2020 - longer in many jurisdictions - after 346 people died in two crashes, Lion Air Flight 610 on October 29, 2018 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 on March 10, 2019. The FAA resisted grounding the aircraft until March 13, when it received evidence of accident similarities. [55] The report tentatively attributed the accident to the erroneous angle-of-attack (AoA) data and automatic nose-down trim commanded by MCAS.[56][57]. Investigations determined that Boeing and the FAA favored cost-saving solutions, but ultimately produced a flawed design. For each aircraft, the FAA will issue an airworthiness certificate, without delegation to Boeing, upon completion of an AoA sensor system test and a validation test flight. [85][86](p1)[87] The NTSB report concludes that assumptions "that Boeing used in its functional hazard assessment of uncommanded MCAS function for the 737 MAX did not adequately consider and account for the impact that multiple flight deck alerts and indications could have on pilots' responses to the hazard". When Boeing induced a stabilizer trim input that simulated the stabilizer moving consistent with the MCAS function, "... the specific failure modes that could lead to unintended MCAS activation (such as an erroneous high AOA input to the MCAS) were not simulated as part of these functional hazard assessment validation tests. • New problems with Max keep cropping up as Boeing works on a fix, and the timeline for the return of the Max has been pushed back several times. In December 2018, a month after the Lion Air accident, the FAA had conducted an internal safety risk analysis predicted fifteen more crashes with no repairs to MCAS, but that report was not revealed until the U.S. House hearing in December 2019. Boeing will pay more than $2.5 billion to settle criminal charges that it repeatedly concealed and lied about the 737 Max's engineering problems that led … On March 13, 2019, the FAA found similarities between the two accidents and grounded the plane. Before that crash, the FAA anticipated that Boeing would deliver a software update to MCAS by April 2019. April 5, Boeing announced it was cutting 737 production by almost a fifth, to 42 aircraft monthly, anticipating a prolonged grounding, and had formed an internal design review committee. January 9, Boeing released previous messages in which it claimed no, January 13, David Calhoun became CEO, pledging to improve Boeing's commitment to safety and. [104][105] Boeing admitted that the MCAS played a role in both accidents and asserted that MCAS is not an anti-stall system. Boeing's 737 MAX, the jetliner grounded for 20 months after two international crashes that killed 346 passengers and crew, resumed commercial flights Dec. 29. [66][67][68], Ethiopian Airlines spokesman Biniyam Demssie said that the procedures for disabling MCAS had just been incorporated into pilot training. The bulletin describes warnings triggered by erroneous AoA data, and referred pilots to a "non-normal runaway trim" procedure as resolution, specifying a narrow window of a few seconds before the system would reactivate and pitch the nose down again. [4] The 20-month grounding was the longest ever for a U.S. airliner, costing Boeing an estimated US$20 billion in fines, compensation and legal fees, and indirect losses in the form of 1,200 cancelled orders valued at more than US$ 60 billion  [5][1] Passenger flights resumed on the MAX in the U.S. and Brazil in December, and Boeing began deliveries of some 400 aircraft in its backlog. No airline took delivery of the MAX during the groundings. [101] Twelve days after the Lion Air accident, on November 10, 2018, Boeing publicly revealed MCAS in a message to airline operators, noting that the system operates "without pilot input. [83][84] On March 11, FAA defended the aircraft against groundings citing these emergency procedures (Continued Airworthiness Notification to the International Community) for operators. [77] Later on the evening, the NTSC offered assistance to Flight 302's investigation team, stating that the committee and the Indonesian Transportation Ministry would send investigators and representatives from the government to assist with the investigation of the crash. Airbus downplayed that it is "winning" in any way due to the MAX grounding, citing its own logistical and supplier capacity to fulfill orders for the A320 family aircraft. "[69] Despite following the procedure, the pilots could not recover. As Boeing faces intense scrutiny over back-to-back crashes of its 737 Max jet, documents and interviews show that the company had safety problems known to federal regulators for years. Chesley Sullenberger commented upon the "cozy relationship" that exists between the industry and its regulators. At the time of the recertification by the FAA in November 2020, Boeing's net orders for the 737 MAX were down by more than 1,000 aircraft,[5] 448 orders canceled and 782 orders removed from the backlog because they are no longer certain enough to rely on; the total estimated direct costs of the MAX groundings were US$20 billion and indirect costs over US$60 billion. The message, MOM-MOM-18-0655-01B, is included in the Lion Air Accident Report. Worldwide grounding of the Boeing 737 MAX following two fatal crashes in five months, Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System, install new flight control computer software and new display system software; incorporate certain Airplane Flight Manual flightcrew operating procedures; modify horizontal stabilizer trim wire routing installations; conduct an angle of attack sensor system test; and conduct an operational readiness flight, per Mr Bahrami's testimony, reported in the House FINAL COMMITTEE REPORT: BOEING 737 MAX, section 9, Post-Accident Response. Both crashes were linked to the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), a new flight control law. Coronavirus has set aviation back to 1999, leading data analysts say. [64] On March 13, 2019, the FAA announced that evidence from the crash site and satellite data on Flight 302 suggested that it might have suffered from the same problem as Lion Air Flight 610 in that the jackscrew controlling the pitch of the horizontal stabilizer of the crashed Flight 302, was found to be set in the full "nose down" position, similar to Lion Air Flight 610. The MAX was given the same type certificate as previous 737 generations to reduce pilot training and save money for its airline customers, a major selling point. On September 26, 2019, the NTSB released the results of its review of potential lapses in the design and approval of the 737 MAX. May 27, Boeing resumed production of the MAX at a "very gradual pace". [72] The French aviation accident investigation agency BEA announced that it would analyze the flight recorders from the flight. The FAA could for example randomly sample pools from the worldwide pilot community to get a more representative assessment of cockpit situations. After two fatal crashes, Lion Air Flight 610 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, global regulators grounded the MAX in March 2019. The FAA issued a Continued Airworthiness Notification to the International Community on March 11 and resisted pressure from U.S. lawmakers to ground the aircraft. [98] Various system, maintenance and training requirements are stipulated, as well as design changes that must be implemented on each aircraft before the FAA issues an airworthiness certificate, without delegation to Boeing. [65] This further implicated MCAS as contributory to the crash. A former senior manager at Boeing's 737 plant in Seattle has raised new concerns over the safety of the company's 737 Max. FAA's administrator, Stephen Dickson, who assumed the position during the accident investigations, said in retrospect that "the result was not satisfactory". Congressman Sam Graves of the House Transportation Committee had blamed the 737 MAX crashes on substandard-quality training of the Indonesian and Ethiopian pilots; stating that "pilots trained in the U.S. would have been successful" in handling the emergencies on both jets, at the House Aviation subcommittee hearing in Washington D.C.[109][110] What Do Travelers Need to Know? During the certification of the MAX in 2017, Boeing removed a description of MCAS from the flight manuals, leaving pilots unaware of the system when the airplane entered service. Boeing provided several outdated return to service timelines, the soonest of which was "in the coming weeks" following the March 2019 grounding. When will the Boeing 737 Max return to service? 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