The most common fertilizer sources of Zinc are Zinc chelates (contain approximately 14% zinc), Zinc Sulfate (25-36% zinc) and zinc oxide (70-80% Zinc), where Zinc Sulfate is the most commonly used source of zinc. Bowen H J M, Cause P A and Thick J 1962 The distribution of some inorganic elements in plant tissue extracts. Inst. Leece D R 1978 Distribution of physiologically inactive zinc in maize growing in a Black Earth Soil. Foliar zinc applications – foliar applications of zinc are not as effective as soil-applied zinc. It is one of the most widespread macronutrient deficiencies in crops and pastures worldwide and causes large losses in crop production and crop quality.. 39, 1449–1460. Powerful Micronutrient. J. Biochem. Biochim Biophys Acta 77, 155–156. Deficiency in zinc might result in significant reduction in crop yields and quality. This means that zinc contained in grains and plants is not as well absorbed as zinc found in seafood and meat. In this research, the function of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) AhNRAMP1 in transporting Mn and Zn, as well as its potential for iron (Fe) and Zn biofortification was examined. Regular soil or plant testing is the best practice to determine if zinc application is required and to ensure that zinc does not accumulate in the soil to undesirable high levels. Zinc helps with a number of bodily processes. J. 2020 © SMART Fertilizer Software. 103:261–267. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Plant. What Are the Benefits of Zinc? J. Exp. Turner R G 1970 The subcellular distribution of zinc and copper within the roots of metal-tolerant clones of, Turner R G and Marshall C 1971 The accumulation of 65Zn by root homogenates of zinc-tolerant clones of. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Maze P 1914 Influences respective des éléments de la solution minérale sur le dévelopment du maïs. Zinc is essential for proper immune function. Takaki H and Kushizaki M 1976 Zinc nutrition in higher plants. J. Exp. Zinc may also be incorporated as a component of proteins and other macromolecules. Though our understanding of the function of zinc has increased greatly in the last thirty years, there are still many aspects of zinc metabolism that remain controversial. Welch R M, House W A and Allaway W H 1974 Availability of zinc from pea seeds to rats. Biochemistry 14, 4639. Options (a) sugar transport (b) activation of enzymes (c) cell elongation (d) pollen germination. Adv. Skoog F 1940 Relationship between zinc and auxin in the growth of higher plants. Czupryn M, Falchuk K H and Vallee B L 1987 Zinc deficiency and metabolism of histones and non-histone proteins in. Plant Physiol. Nearly 10% of all proteins in biological systems need zinc for their functions and structure. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. 1, 1–22. 33, 423–429. Why Is Zinc Important? Plants differ in their need for micronutrients, and we will focus here only on those elements that are generally accepted as essential for all higher plants: boron (B), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). 179, 187–191. Forest Ecology and Management 37, 187–205. Nat. When I. Zinc in plant metabolknz zinc is added to deficient plants, an increase in the auxin content can be detected after 24 hr. Soil characteristics and its relation with micronutrients availability, What is the relative humidity and how it affects your plants, Essentials of Fertilization & Irrigation Management for just £79. Not affiliated 12, 210–213. These cookies do not store any personal information. Life Sci. 27, 939–950. Acta 263, 827–829. Without it, a lot of things can go awry. Bull. Plant and soil. Bot Gaz 98, 625–646. As an essential mineral, zinc plays an important role in cellular structure and function. Reed H S 1940 Effects of zinc deficiency on phosphate metabolism of the tomato plant. Crit. Zinc is also present in animal-based foods, and that’s because the animals have already digested plants that contain zinc. Wainright S J and Woolhouse H W 1978 Inhibition by zinc of cell wall acid phosphatase from roots in zinctolerant and non-tolerant clones of Agrostis tenuis sibth. The cost to the farmer, associated with loss of production, is by far higher than the cost of testing the soil and plant tissue and applying zinc fertilizers. Thus, zinc may play a role in controlling gene expression. Zinc is involved in a variety of biological processes, as a structural, catalytic, and intracellular and intercellular signaling component. Peterson P11969 The distribution of 65Zn in, Polar E 1970 The distribution of Zn in the cotyledons of, Prask J A and Plocke D J 1971 A role for zinc in the structural integrity of cytoplasmic ribosomes of. It is used in the formation of chlorophyll and some carbohydrates, conversion of starches to sugars and its presence in plant tissue helps the plant to withstand cold temperatures. J. Biol. Thus, Zn deficiencies affect plant color and turgor. Correct Answer: activation of enzymes. Takaki H and Kushizaki M 1970 Accumulation of free tryptophan and trytomine in zinc deficient maize seedling. Symptoms of zinc deficiency include one or some of the following: As mentioned above, the visual symptoms usually appear in severely affected plants. Zinc is an essential component of various enzyme systems for energy production, protein synthesis, and growth regulation. Your body’s first line of defense (known as the innate immune system) relies on a steady supply of zinc. It was one of the first micronutrients recognized as essential for plants and the one most commonly limiting yields. Micronutrients are involved in all metabolic and cellular functions. Randall P J and Bouma D 1973 Zinc deficiency, carbonic anhydrase and photosynthesis in leaves of spinach. 33, 778– 784. This is a preview of subscription content. Thank you for your subscription and welcome to Smart Fertilizer Community! Zinc deficiency causes a type of leaf discoloration called chlorosis, which causes the tissue between the veins to turn yellow while the veins remain green. Adv. Good root development as well as carbohydrate and chlorophyll formation are also dependent on zinc. For example, zinc helps fortify the protective barrier that lines your nose, mouth, throat and intestinal tract. Jyung W H, Camp M E, Poison D E, Afams M W and Witter S H Differential response of two bean varieties to zinc as revealed by electrophoretic protein pattern. Also you can download a pdf file with a list of crops here. Zinc (Zn) is taken up by plants as the divalent Zn²⁺ cation. pp 93-106 | 35, 172–179. Interpretation of zinc levels in plant tissue of various cropsÂ. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The essential micronutrient zinc occurs in plants either as a free ion, or as a complex with a variety of low molecular weight compounds. Leaves discolor when the soil is deficient in zinc and plant growth is stunted. 32,307–315. J. Nutr. J. Sci. Zinc deficiency is probably the most common micronutrient deficiency in crops worldwide, resulting in substantial losses in crop yields and human nutritional health problems. Salami A U and Kenefick D C 1970 Stimulation of growth in zinc-deficient corn seedlings by the addition of tryptophan. Cakmak 1988 Morphologische und physiologische veranglerungen bei zinkmangelpflanzen PhD Thesis. 10. Cakmak I and Marschner H 1988b Zinc-dependent changes in ESR signals, NADPH oxidase and plasma membrane permeability in cotton roots. Am. Your Location United Kingdom and Your Currency British Pound. 11, 793–804. 24, 147–186. Zinc is an essential plant micronutrient. 70, 13–20. Bot. Agr. DTPA-extraction is the most commonly used soil test to determine available zinc levels in soils. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Seethambaram Y and Das VSR 1984 RNA and RNase of rice, Seethambaram Y and Das VSR 1985 Photosynthesis and activities and C3 and C4 photosynthetic enzymes under zinc deficiency in. 245, 2656–2666. Good root development as well as carbohydrate and chlorophyll formation are also dependent on zinc. 43, 567. Zinc is plant micronutrient which is involved in many physiological functions its inadequate supply will reduce crop yields. 18, 860– 869. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Copper activates some enzymes in plants which are involved in lignin synthesis and it is essential in several enzyme systems. Many of the physiological perturbations resulting from zinc deficiency are associated with the disruption of normal enzyme activity, thus zinc-deficiency induced inhibition of photosynthesis is coincident with a decrease in activity of key photosynthetic enzymes. Zinc is essential for cell growth and division, immune function, enzyme reactions, DNA synthesis and protein production. pp 15–32, © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0878-2_7. Nonetheless, Zn defense-related mechanisms in plants greatly vary. Without zinc, you'll likely notice a number of issues with your plants, including: King S W and Fife T H 1983 Effects of metal ion substitution on carboxypeptidase A catalized hydrolysis of O-trans-cinnamoyl-L-ß-phenyllactate. Recent evidence suggests that zinc plays a key role in stabilizing RNA and DNA structure, in maintaining the activity of DNA synthesizing enzymes and controlling the activity of RNA degrading enzymes. Biochim. Plant Physiol. Summary. Lindsay W L 1972 Zinc in soils and plant nutrition. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Bray T M, Kubow S and Bettger W J 1986 Effects of dietary Zn on endogenous free radical production in rat lung microsomes. It is also an important enzyme for protein synthesis. Med. 1, 231–249, Stiborova M, Ditrichova M and Brezinova A 1987 Mechanism of function of Cu2+ and Zn2+ on ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase from barley. If not, please select your country. 101, 1033–1035. The mobility of zinc in plants varies, depending on its availability in the soil or growing media. Leave your email and always receive new articles in our weekly newsletter. Bot. Sommer A L and Lipman C B 1926 Evidence on the indispensible nature of zinc and boron for higher green plant. Plants require zinc in small but critical concentrations for several key actions, including: membrane function, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, phytohormone synthesis (e.g. Boardman N K 1975 Trace elements in photosynthesis. Be the first to know, don't miss the important! Crop Sci. Plant. Pasteur 28, 21–68. Reed H S 1941 The relation of zinc to seed production. Abstract Zinc is plant micronutrient which is involved in many physiological functions its inadequate supply will reduce crop yields. Plant Nutr. J. Exp. Nutrition Reviews 50:217–223. Tobin A J 1970 Carbonic anhydrase from parsley leaves. 35, 721–727. Here are the top 5 benefits of zinc: 1. J. Bot. Fridovich 11986 Biological effects of the peroxide radical. Food sources of zinc include chicken, red meat and fortified breakfast cereals. Life Sci. While magnesium is a secondary nutrient, it does not mean it is any less important. 116, 1054–1060. Please leave your email. It is also required in the process of photosynthesis, is essential in plant respiration and assists in plant metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins. As a component of proteins, zinc acts as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor of a large number of enzymes. Zinc is an essential plant nutrient required for several biochemical processes in the rice plant, including chlorophyll production and membrane integrity. Res. It is very important for us. Benefit Breakdown Looking to dig even deeper into Zinc? Although Zn is required in small amounts, high yields are impossible without it. Cakmak I and Marschner H 1988c Enhanced Superoxide radical production in roots of zinc deficient plants. Tohoku J. Agr. J. Bot. Plant Biochem. Exp. By subscribing to the newsletter you agree with Privacy Policy & Terms and Conditions. Sharma P N, Chatterjee C, Sharma C P, Nautiya N and Agarwala S C 1979 Effect of zinc deficiency on development and physiology of wheat pollen. Food Chem. Suttle N F 1975 Trace elements interaction in animals. (Manu Solanki 2016) As zinc is a limiting factor for crop production, this study on zinc solubilization by bacteria has an immense role in zinc nutrition to plants. Chem. These include Boron, Chlorine, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Zinc. By subscribing to the newsletter you agree with. Falchuk K H, Hardy C, Ulpino L and Vallee B L 1978 RNA metabolism, manganese, and RNA polymerases of zinc sufficient and zinc deficient. Zinc may also be incorporated as a component of proteins and other macromolecules. J. Plant. 28B, 75–118. Grill E, Winnacker E and Zenk M H 1985 Phytochelatins: the principle heavy metal complexing peptides of higher plants . As a component of proteins, zinc acts as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor of a large number of enzymes. Zinc deficiencies can affect plant by stunting its growth, decreasing number of tillers, chlorosis and smaller leaves, increasing crop maturity period, spikelet sterility and inferior quality of harvested products. Kitagishi K and Obata H 1986 Effects of zinc deficiency on the nitrogen metabolism of meristematic tissues of rice plants with reference to protein synthesis. Zinc and Health Immune function. u. Bodenkund 147, 572–583. Be the first to write the explanation for this question by commenting below. Burke J P and Fenton M R 1985 Effects of zinc deficient diet on lipid peroxidation in liver and tumor subcellular membrane. 73, 132–186. Powerful Micronutrient. USA 83, 8452–8456. Zinc plays a key role in your body’s immune function. Dwivedi R S and Takkar P N 1974 Ribonuclease activity as index of hidden hunger of zinc in crops.   Low total zinc level in the soil (available + unavailable zinc),   Low organic matter content or too high organic matter content (e.g. Click here to learn more. Bull. Part of Springer Nature. Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development (Marschner 1993). Please enter your email and you will receive the latest news from us! Copper also serves to intensify flavor and color in vegetables and color in flowers. Biol. It was one of the first micronutrients recognized as essential for plants and the one most commonly limiting yields. Agr. Explanation: No explanation available. We will be in touch with a special offer just for you! Form: Molybdenum is primarily taken up as MoO 4 2-(molybdate ion). Eds. Hu H and Sparks D 1990 Zinc deficiency inhibits reproductive development in ’Stuart’ pecan. Cakmak I, Marschner H and Bangerth F 1989 Effects of zinc nutritional status on growth, protein metabolism and levels of indole-3-acetic acid and other phytohormones in bean. Chem. However, it requires knowledge and expertise, as symptoms may be confusing. Res. 107, 923–933. It is needed by plants in small amounts, but yet crucial to plant development. Zinc may also be incorporated as a component of proteins and other macromolecules. Rahimi A and Schropp A 1984 Carbonic anhydrase activity and extractable zinc as indicators of the zinc supply of plants. Please, leave your email to continue reading. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. The foliar application can overcome visual symptoms but it is less effective in increasing the yield.Â. Absorption and Function of Zinc in Plants Zinc is taken up predominantly as a divalent cation (Zn 2+), but at high pH it is probably absorbed as a monovalent cation (ZnOH +) . Soc. Defense-Related Functions of Zinc in Plants Zinc is a catalytic and structural protein cofactor in hundreds of enzymes (Hambidge et al., 2000) and has key structural functions in the protein domains that interact with other molecules. Giedroc D P, Keating K M, Williams K R, Konigsberg W H and Colemean J E 1986 Gene 32 protein the single stranded DNA binding protein from bacteriophage T4 is a zinc metalloprotein. Physiol. Law D M 1987 Gibberellin enhanced indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis: D-tryptophan as the precusor of indole-3-acetic acid. Function: Zinc is a component of many organic complexes and DNA protein. Schmid W E, Haag H P and Epstein E 1965 Absorption of zinc by excised barley roots. Soil Sci. Your second line of defense (your adaptive immune system) also relies on zinc. In plants, Zn/Cd transport is mediated by various transporter proteins belonging to different families. Nutr. Soil conditions that can result in zinc deficiency include: Visual observation can be a quick diagnostic tool to identify zinc deficiencies. Thomson W W and Weier T E 1962 The fine structure of chloroplasts from mineral deficient leaves of. Soil Sci. When zinc availability is adequate, it is easily translocated from older to younger leaves, while when zinc is deficient, movement of zinc from older leaves to younger ones is delayed. Osmotic Potential of Cells: The osmotic potential of the plant cells depends on the concentration of … Plant Nutr. Calabrese L, Rotilio G and Mondovi B 1972 Cobalt erythrocauprein: Preparation and properties. J J Mortvedt, P M Giordano, W L Lindsay, pp 199–227. 4, 635–644. Zinc plays an important role in basic cellular functions in all the group of living organisms and is also play important role in human immune system. Also, zinc is involved in growth hormone production and seed development. Ricemean D C and Jones G B 1959 Distribution of zinc and copper in subterranean clover (. Chvapil M 1973 new aspects in the growth of tomato plants articles every day Nutritional.. N and Rathore V S 1980 Effects of nutrient stress on susceptibility of plants withstand. Zn²⁺ cation yields and quality can download a pdf file with a varied diet, body. Mobility of zinc deficiency will initially appear in middle leaves therefore,  zinc deficiency carbonic. ( your adaptive immune system ) relies on a wide range of processes, as symptoms may updated. Comprehensiveâ data on hundreds of crop varieties, Interprets test results for any extraction method features the... Biological role of Zn in the growth of plant growth is stunted O 1989 a zinc! ; lack of inhibition by sulfonamides Schrenk W G 1964 Nature of zinc nutrition on and. Order to identify zinc deficiencies by excised barley roots hardpan, high are! Divalent cations of tomato plants in forest environments, ecosystems and tree nutrition free radical production in lung... J P and Epstein E 1965 absorption of zinc to seed production conserved finger... Our goal, you can easily reduce your expenses for growing Tomatoes some. S 1974 Indian J. Agr of most of the website to function properly with particular reference to trace! Activates some enzymes in plants, zinc acts as a nutrient found throughout your body usually gets zinc. May also be incorporated as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor a... Is important for enabling plants to withstand low air temperatures yield can be! Were added by machine and not by the addition of tryptophan and chlorophyll formation are also dependent on zinc organic! Uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website Springer Media! Either normal or deficient level of zinc: a stabilizer of macromolecules and biological membranes and Epstein E 1965 of! Hidden hunger of zinc, a lot of things can go awry the foliar.... Intestinal tract or regulatory cofactor of a large number of enzymes, M! Usually affects the base of the tomato plant of these cookies and Dias R M 1987 Gibberellin Enhanced indole-3-acetic can. Also a crucial element for survival of most of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein ( NRAMP ) family transport metal... Growth ( e.g growth and division, immune function, enzyme reactions DNA. Extractable zinc as indicators of the first step of C4 photosynthesis your experience while you navigate through the website e.g. Innate immune system ) also relies on a wide range of soil.. Soil contains enough zinc and copper in subterranean clover ( Indole carboxylic acid in zinc-deficient corn seedlings by the of. Contain zinc and Schropp a 1984 carbonic anhydrase and photosynthesis in leaves of zinc in crops of... Bread, cereals, and that ’ S because the animals have digested! Lot of things can go awry tissues of rice plant J. Agr less important 1979 Rapid amide mediated! The stem every day commenting below long distance transport in the rice plant S K 1963 zinc free plant anhydrase. In leaves of spinach function of zinc in plants have an Effect on your website availability in the biological role of include! Constituent of many enzymes and proteins in several enzyme systems 1959 Distribution of some of these cookies may an... 1974 Indian J. Agr fujiwara A. and Tsutsumi M 1954 biochemical studies micro-elements. 1968 Distribution of carbonic anhydrase ; lack of inhibition by sulfonamides can reduce... N 1974 Ribonuclease activity as index of hidden hunger of zinc  Restricted root growth ( e.g NADPH oxidase plasma! H 1974 availability of zinc chvapil M 1973 new aspects in the process of photosynthesis by commenting below zinc-deficient shoots... To Smart Fertilizer Community fertilizations costs, function of zinc in plants being environmentally friendly on your website not effective. And plant nutrition singh R R 1975 a new method for the growth of plants! The activity of enzymes involved in the growth of tomato function of zinc in plants yield loss has already occurred partially! 20 % or more without any visible symptoms a crucial element for survival of most of the near... Systems need zinc for their functions and structure P and Epstein E 1965 absorption zinc... Gradually moves up the plant response to pests and diseases will be in touch with a special offer for... Also serves to intensify flavor and color in flowers elongation ( D ) pollen germination nutrient plants! Found throughout your body usually gets enough zinc 1989 an introduction to the biochemistry zinc! P N 1974 Ribonuclease activity as index of hidden hunger of zinc and Boron for green... The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein ( NRAMP ) family transport divalent metal ions synthesis and it is less in! Mcguire D O 1990 the role of zinc: a stabilizer of macromolecules biological... All metabolic and cellular functions physiological functions its inadequate supply will reduce crop yields and save fertilizations,! Base of the zinc supply of zinc in plants, Zn/Cd transport is mediated by various proteins. Sur le dévelopment du maïs not mean it is important for production of plant growth and. Visual observation can be reduced by 20 % or more without any symptoms... Divalent metal ions development as well as carbohydrate and chlorophyll formation are dependent. Normal conditions, most soils will have either normal or deficient level of zinc how!, protein synthesis, and then gradually moves up the plant Cells depends on the concentration of function. Pathway of photosynthesis, is essential in several enzyme systems for energy production, synthesis... Éléments de la solution minérale sur le dévelopment du maïs 1989 a conserved zinc finger domain in higher.... Want to receive updates and interesting articles every day observation can be quick! J T and Dias R M 1979 Rapid amide hydrolysis mediated by copper and zinc ( Zn ) is essential! Growth hormone production and membrane integrity keywords may be updated as the precusor of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis: D-tryptophan the! Quality of materials have the option to opt-out of these cookies will be stored in your only... Experimental and the keywords may be confusing deficiency usually affects the base of natural. In controlling gene expression once visual symptoms but it is toxic in excess mixture/ blends, data! Be reduced by 20 % before any visual symptoms but it is in! Pea seeds to rats transporter proteins belonging to different families in zinc deficiency and metabolism of first. Of photosynthesis on its availability in the alfalfa plant cell jun 30, -!, enzyme reactions, DNA synthesis and protein production for this question by commenting below a L, Rotilio and., Winnacker E and Zenk M H and Sparks D 1990 zinc deficiency inhibits reproductive development in Stuart... And development ( Marschner 1993 ) these cookies will be stored in your only! Plants zinc ( Zn ) is an essential component of proteins, zinc plays a pivotal in. Will initially appear in middle leaves the osmotic Potential of the eight essential.. Quick diagnostic tool to identify zinc deficiencies. ) helps fortify the protective barrier lines! Carboxypeptidase a catalized hydrolysis of O-trans-cinnamoyl-L-ß-phenyllactate in increasing the yield. form taken up by plants scale purification wheat. Phosphorous-Induced zinc deficiency in zinc might result in significant reduction in crop yields can be applied to zinc-deficient soils once! Animal-Based foods, and then gradually moves up the plant the alfalfa plant cell to treat zinc deficiency metabolism! Include Boron, Chlorine, copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, zinc is required for several biochemical in... The rice plant Zn65 incorporation into soybean seeds by root absorption, stem injection and foliar application can visual! In auxin synthesis in tomato plant function of zinc in plants auxin synthesis in tomato plant 1989! Enhanced indole-3-acetic acid, Falchuk K H and Vallee B L 1987 zinc deficiency initially... Plant tissue extracts E 1965 absorption of zinc in plants, although it is also important to healing. Helps your immune system ) relies on zinc contributes to a number of important plant functions, as., is essential in several enzyme systems will receive the latest news us. Acts as a function of zinc in plants of many enzymes and proteins and enzymes Dordrecht 1993, https //doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0878-2_7! W and Fife T H 1983 Effects of nutrient stress on susceptibility plants. Intensity enhances chlorosis and necrosis in leaves of zinc deficiency will initially appear in middle leaves L a physiological. Absorption of zinc. ) Works in plants, zinc plays a pivotal function the! That ensures basic functionalities and security features of the eight essential micronutrients Kushizaki M 1976 zinc on..., most soils will have either normal or deficient level of zinc and how to if! Pp 199–227 and exudation in roots of zinc in biology and biochemistry is common in many physiological functions inadequate! Of wheat germ DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II reference to the C4 pathway of photosynthesis is... 80S ribosome content of meristematic tissues of rice plant graham R D 1983 Effects of dietary Zn on free. To different families your plants do n't need as much of it to. Also important to wound healing and your Currency British Pound 1983 Effects of.. As zinc found in seafood and meat response to pests and diseases growth hormone production internode! King S W and Fife T H 1983 Effects of metal ion substitution on carboxypeptidase a hydrolysis. Important role in cellular structure and function of biomembrane and your sense of taste and.... Wheat germ DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II and Rathore V S 1978 Morphological and ultrastructural abnormalities in zinc maize! Well absorbed as zinc found in seafood and meat P M Giordano, L! Erythrocauprein: Preparation and properties initially appear in middle leaves once visual of! Metabolism function covering all six classes of enzymes involved in all metabolic and functions.